El Sistema de Seguridad Social Integral, creado por la Ley 100 de 1993, tiene como objetivo promover una calidad de vida digna facilitando el acceso a la atención en salud, pensiones, riesgos laborales, y servicios sociales complementarios. Con el ánimo de garantizar la cobertura pensional a los connacionales que han emigrado, el Gobierno de Colombia ha centrado sus actividades en dos direcciones: a. La adecuación del Sistema Pensional colombiano para garantizar el acceso a quienes residen en el exterior, y b. La suscripción de convenios bilaterales y multilaterales de Seguridad Social con países con los que Colombia tiene una alta tradición de migración.

En primera medida se creó el programa “Colombianos en el exterior”, iniciativa que administra Colpensiones. Este programa permite que los colombianos emigrados se afilien al Sistema Pensional colombiano e inicien la realización de aportes o que continúen la afiliación si es que ya han realizado cotizaciones en el país, sumando así a los requisitos definidos para recibir una pensión en Colombia.

Colpensiones ha adecuado los medios virtuales que permiten hacer la afiliación a través de la página Web de la entidad, y ha puesto a disposición medios de pago para realizar los aportes a través de sucursales de Wester Union o a través de la Planilla Integrada de Liquidación de Aportes – PILA, disponible vía internet.

Este programa brinda la posibilidad de recibir una mesada pensional una vez que se cumplan los requisitos según la normativa colombiana: la persona puede decidir donde recibe su pensión y esta alternativa beneficia a los colombianos en el exterior sin importar su estatus migratorio.

En segunda medida, el Gobierno ha avanzado en la suscripción de convenios bilaterales de Seguridad Social y actualmente se encuentran vigentes los tratados con Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, España y Uruguay. El objetivo de dichos convenios es el de reconocer los tiempos cotizados en los dos países, sumándolos en el historial de aportes pensionales del trabajador. Es necesario que los migrantes que quieran beneficiarse de dichos convenios realicen los aportes establecidos por las legislaciones de cada país a través de sus Sistemas de Seguridad Social y que cumplan con los períodos de cotización definidos.

Para difundir la información sobre seguridad social para los migrantes colombianos las entidades competentes (Cancillería, MinTrabajo, Colpensiones y las AFPs) han dispuesto de folletos informativos y canales de información presenciales, telefónicos y virtuales, para resolver dudas o preguntas sobre casos particulares. Aún así el grado de conocimiento sobre los mecanismos de acceso a seguridad social no es amplio, y en algunos casos los colombianos no pueden hacer un aporte que sume a los requisitos para acceder a una pensión.

¿En qué podemos contribuir para que esta situación mejore?

  1. Haciendo seguimiento sobre la implementación de nuevos acuerdos y participando en la difusión de la información de acceso de los existentes.
  2. Si identificamos un cuello de botella o una barrera de acceso informarlo a la entidad competente en Colombia, Ministerio del Trabajo, y solicitar una medida de mejora frente al caso reportado.
  3. Solicitar la implementación de acuerdos bilaterales de seguridad social con países con importante participación de la diáspora colombiana, es prioritario generar mecanismos con países como Estados Unidos, Venezuela, Costa Rica y los países europeos.
  4. Apoyarnos en la presión que, a nivel del Congreso de la República, puede hacer el/la representante por los colombianos en el Exterior, para que el proceso de evaluación y aprobación de los proyectos de ley que regulan los convenios de seguridad social surta los pasos requeridos en el menor tiempo posible. Actualmente se encuentra en discusión la implementación del proyecto relacionado con el Convenio Iberoamericano de Seguridad Social.

Donna Catalina Cabrera Serrano · Antropóloga especializada en migración internacional
Twitter: @donnacabrera

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